LED products involved in the trade war
Most of the products in the new target list launched by the U.S. government are traditional lighting products, such as various types of tungsten-halogen lamps, hot cathode fluorescent lamps, high-intensity gas discharge lamps, ballasts for discharge lamps, lamp accessories and various lighting products. lamps etc. Only some products in the lighting category (such as chandeliers and ceiling lamps, table lamps and bedside lamps, Christmas lamps, etc.) include some LED lighting products. A total of more than 10 LED lighting products (excluding bulbs and filament bulbs, both of which are high-volume products) will be affected by tariff restrictions.
Light-emitting diodes are referred to as LED (Light-emitting Diode), also known as semiconductor lighting (Semiconductor Lighting), which is an important branch of the semiconductor industry. The LED industry chain includes chips, packaging, applications, drivers, material accessories and other industries from top to bottom, including: high-purity gas, substrate materials (gallium arsenide single crystal, aluminum nitride single crystal, etc.), MO source, Alumina, fluorescent powder, silica gel, gold wire, epoxy resin, silver glue and other materials; while the upper and middle reaches include UV LED, IR LED and other market segments, and downstream applications are finished products, such as LED displays, LED street lights, LED industrial and mining Lamps, filament lamps, etc. At the same time, the downstream of LED also includes peripheral industries, such as drive power, control systems, hardware cabinets, control software and many other applications.
At present, the world’s five major LED giants: Nichia of Japan, Toyoda Gosei of Toyoda Gosei of Japan, CREE of the United States, Lumileds of Lumileds of the United States, and Osram of Germany represent the high-tech level of LED and lead the development of the LED industry. As of 2017, the LED global market penetration rate is as high as 36.7%.
History of LED development
- 1961: The first commercial diode was produced, and the American TI company used GaAs semiconductors to invent LEDs that could emit infrared light;
- 1962: General Electric Company of the United States took the lead in developing red visible light LED;
- 1965: Commercialization of infrared LEDs, mass production of GaAsP red LEDs, mainly used to replace small light bulbs in experimental equipment;
- 1973: Japan’s Panasonic launched blue LED research;
- 1993: Japan’s Nichia Corporation developed blue LEDs, leading to the successful development of white LEDs, making the application of LEDs a substantial step from a simple sign display function to a lighting function.
At present, the global LED packaging industry is mainly concentrated in Japan, Taiwan, the United States, Europe, South Korea and mainland China. Among them, Japan, the United States, and Europe are the earliest LED packaging industry development areas in the world because of their advantages in advanced industrial technology and manufacturing equipment; Taiwan and South Korea have a complete industrial chain of consumer electronics, with a clear division of labor between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the industry, and stable supply and marketing of the industrial chain , so it has risen rapidly in recent years; mainland China has cost advantages and a rapidly expanding LED application market. In the past 10 years, LED packaging capital from countries around the world, including Taiwan, has continuously transferred to mainland China, and they have established in mainland China. Packaging factories, domestic packaging companies continue to grow and develop, and technology continues to mature and innovate, making mainland China one of the regions where LED packaging is rapidly emerging. China’s packaging industry has formed four LED-intensive areas, namely the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta, the Fujian-Jiangxi region, and the Bohai Rim region. China has become an important LED packaging base in the world.
Compared with traditional lighting, LED lighting has the following characteristics: very low working voltage; small working current; good shock resistance and shock resistance, high reliability, and long life; light can be easily modulated by modulating the strength of the passing current The strength of lighting system, etc., can become the node of lighting system control, which greatly changes the operation/business model of lighting system and service, and then greatly promotes the progress of sustainable development. Therefore, LEDs are called the fourth generation of lighting sources (the first generation of incandescent lamps, the second generation of fluorescent lamps (fluorescent lamps), and the third generation of compact fluorescent lamps (energy-saving lamps)).
The LED lighting application market can be mainly divided into outdoor landscape lighting (guardrail lights, projection lights, lawn lights, etc.), general indoor lighting, decorative lighting, special lighting (street lights, flashlights, headlights, reading lights, etc.), special lighting (military, Medical lighting, biological special lights, etc.) and car lighting, etc.
Factors Affecting the Price of LED Lights
my country’s LED Application Distribution Pattern in 2017
The brightness of the LED is different, and the price is different.
2. Antistatic ability
LEDs with strong antistatic ability have long life and high price. Generally, LEDs with an antistatic value greater than 700V can be used for LED lighting.
3. Lighting angle
LEDs with different uses have different light emitting angles. Special luminous angle, the price is higher. Such as the full diffusion angle, the price is higher.
The key to different qualities is life, which is determined by light decay. Small light decay, long life, long life, high price.
LEDs with the same wavelength and color will be more expensive. It is difficult for manufacturers without LED spectrometers to produce products with pure colors.
6. Leakage current
LED is a unidirectional conductive illuminant. If there is a reverse current, it is called leakage. LED with large leakage current has short life and low price.
7. LED chips
The LED chip is also called the LED light-emitting chip, which is the core component of the LED lamp, which refers to the P-N junction. Its main function is to convert electrical energy into light energy, and the main material of the chip is monocrystalline silicon.
The illuminant of the LED is a chip, and the price of different chips varies greatly. Chips from Japan and the United States are more expensive, and the prices of LED chips from Taiwanese manufacturers and local Chinese manufacturers are lower than those from Japan and the United States.
8. Chip size
The size of the chip is expressed by the side length, and the quality of the large chip LED is better than that of the small chip. The price is directly proportional to the chip size. There are three sizes of high-power LED chips: 38*38mil, 40*40mil, and 45*45mil. Of course, the chip size can be customized, which is just a common specification.
Epoxy resin is an essential material used in energy-saving LEDs. In addition to the performance of LEDs related to factors such as the quality of the chip itself, the choice of epoxy resin is also an important factor. The colloid of ordinary LEDs is generally epoxy resin, and LEDs with anti-ultraviolet and fire-resistant agents are more expensive. High-quality outdoor LED lights(as LED Flood Lights) should be anti-ultraviolet and fire-resistant.
Common uses of adhesives in LEDs:
- Light frame bonding and sealing
- Potting waterproof and heat conduction protection
- Aluminum substrate for auxiliary heat dissipation
- Drive power heat conduction and flame retardant
- Circuit board covered with three defenses
There are 16 main varieties of epoxy resin, including general-purpose glue, structural glue, high-temperature-resistant glue, low-temperature-resistant glue, glue for underwater and wet surfaces, conductive glue, optical glue, spot welding glue, epoxy resin film, foaming There are 16 kinds of adhesives, strain adhesives, soft material bonding adhesives, sealants, special adhesives, latent curing adhesives, and civil construction adhesives.
Four stages of development of China’s semiconductor lighting industry
The first stage
1960-1980: The Chinese Academy of Sciences began research on luminescence science
1980-2002: LED went out of the research room and started commercial use. Statistics show that in 2002, there were 420 LED manufacturers in my country, with more than 30,000 employees.
The third phase
2002-2005: The national scientific and technological research plan for semiconductor lighting was launched
2005-2015: Entering the explosive period, the LED output value increased from about 8 billion yuan in 2002 to 424.5 billion yuan at the end of 2015, and the global share of domestic LED chips increased to 45%.
Leader in various chip segments
- The domestic leader in memory chip design is GigaDevice;
- The domestic GPU leader is Jingjiawei;
- Yangjie Technology is the leader of semiconductor discrete devices in my country;
- SMIC is the leading wafer foundry in mainland my country;
- Sanan Optoelectronics is the global leader in LED chips;
- Silan Micro is a high-quality domestic IDM enterprise;
- NAURA is a leader in domestic semiconductor equipment;
- Zhichun Technology is the only high-purity process system integration supplier in A shares;
- Jingrui is a leading company in microelectronic chemicals in China;
- Sugon is a leading enterprise in high-performance computing in China;
- Ziguang Guoxin is a listed company in the semiconductor industry under the Ziguang Group. It is currently a leading supplier of integrated circuit chip design and system integration solutions in China;
- Beijing Junzheng is a leading company in embedded processor chips;
- Zhongying Electronics is a high-quality IC design company in China;
- Goodix is a global leader in biometric chips;
- JCET is the leader in domestic semiconductor packaging and testing;
LED Chip/Epitaxial Wafer Supplier
The global LED chip market is mainly divided into three camps: the first camp represented by Japanese, European and American manufacturers; the second camp represented by South Korean and Chinese Taiwan manufacturers; the third camp represented by Chinese mainland manufacturers.
- The LED chip industry is mainly based in Guangdong and Fujian. Among them, Guangdong chip factories are mainly distributed in four cities including Shenzhen, Toshiba, Guangzhou and Jiangmen. Fujian is an important production base for LED chips in China, and the main chip cities are Xiamen, Quanzhou and Fuzhou.
- Japan: Nichia, Toyoda Gosei, Toshiba, Genelite, Shoho Denko, Taiyo Nippon Sanso, etc.;
- Europe and the United States: Cree, HP, Osram, Philips, Apollo (acquired lumileds), Xuming, Preh, etc.;
- South Korea: An Ying, Seoul Semiconductor, etc.;
- Taiwan: Epistar, Guanghong, Optolei, Huashang Optoelectronics, New Century, Everlight, Canyuan Optoelectronics, Tegu Optoelectronics, etc.;
- Mainland: Xiamen Sanan Optoelectronics, Huacan Optoelectronics, Hangzhou Shilan Mingxin, Jinko Electronics, Fangda Guoke Optoelectronics, Xiamen Jingyu Optoelectronics, Xiamen Mingda Optoelectronics, Dongguan Zhoulei Electronics, Wuhan Diyuan Optoelectronics, Xiamen Gan Zhaozhao Optoelectronics, Guangdong Dehao Runda, Aoyang Shunchang, Yuanrong Optoelectronics, Shanghai Blu-ray Technology, Xiangneng Hualei Optoelectronics, Dalian Lumei, Crystal Energy Optoelectronics, Jucan Optoelectronics, Fangda Group, Puguang Technology, Nanchang Xinlei Optoelectronics, etc.
- The main representative companies in China: Sanan and Jingdian are still the main competitors in the high-end LED chip market. Both of them are basically leading the strategy of technology, and Sanan has the advantage of being closer to the market. Sanan focuses on technology research and development of chip demand in the mainstream market, while Epistar focuses more on differentiated positioning and pursues a leading position in the high-end market segment. The price positioning of the two is comparable. In comparison, Epistar’s cost Compared with Sanan, it has disadvantages. Huacan and Aoyang Shunchang are technology-following strategies. Aoyang Shunchang’s cost advantage has been recognized by Mulinsen, and it has become Mulinsen’s first chip supplier, and has received a capital injection from Mulinsen. BDO has been committed to becoming a technology leader in flip chip, CSP and other fields. Lattice Optoelectronics is pursuing the leadership in silicon substrate technology.
Mask Aligner Supplier
Lithography determines the accuracy of semiconductor circuits, as well as chip power consumption and performance. Related equipment requires the most cutting-edge technologies in the fields of integrated materials, optics, electromechanical, etc., and is known as the crown jewel of the semiconductor industry.
The general photolithography process has to go through the processes of cleaning and drying the surface of the silicon wafer, primer coating, spin-coating photoresist, soft baking, alignment exposure, post-baking, developing, hard baking, and etching.
Dutch ASML, also known as ASML, is the undisputed world leader in the field of lithography machines, accounting for 80% of the mid-to-high-end equipment. For the most advanced EUV lithography technology, ASML has the second largest number of patent applications in the world, and Intel, Samsung, TSMC, and Hynix are all its shareholders. Headquartered in Veldhoven, the Netherlands, it was founded in 1984 as a joint venture between Philips and ASMI, formerly known as Advanced Semiconductor Material Lithography Holding N.V. In 1995, ASML acquired the shares held by Philip and called it a completely independent company. In the same year, it was listed on NASDAQ and the Amsterdam Stock Exchange. In 2001, it was renamed ASML.
In the year of its establishment, ASML launched the first hydraulically driven PAS2000 stepper lithography machine, but the technology used in PAS 2000 is outdated. In 1986, ASML launched the PAS 2500 stepper lithography machine, and began to establish a certain reputation in the market. In the same year, it established a close cooperative relationship with the lens manufacturer Carl Zeiss, laying an important foundation for future development.
In 1991, the PAS 5000 lithography machine was launched on the market. Because it can significantly reduce the time required for chip production, the PAS 5000 has achieved great success. After that, in 2000-2001, the Twinscan XT and Twinscan NXT series with dual-workbench and immersion lithography technology were successfully developed, which established ASML’s dominance in the field of lithography machines in one fell swoop, and the market share of Nikon and Canon was drastically reduced. In 2007, the success of the EUV lithography machine Twinscan NXE series further expanded ASML’s market share, reaching 75%-80%, becoming the absolute leader in the industry.
- Nikon and Canon have withdrawn from the high-end lithography machine market.
- Other suppliers: Nikon Japan, Canon Japan, ABM America
- Domestic lithography machine suppliers:
- Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Co., Ltd. (90nm lithography machine with the best performance)
- Guodian, the 45th Research Institute of Neutron Technology Group Corporation
- Hefei Xinshuo Semiconductor Co., Ltd.
- Xianteng Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd.
- Wuxi Shadow Speed Semiconductor Technology Co., Ltd.
- Shanghai Microelectronics Equipment Co., Ltd. has mass-produced 90nm,
- The 45th Research Institute of Neutron Technology Group Corporation Guodian has mass-produced 1500nm
- Hefei Xinshuo Semiconductor Co., Ltd. has mass-produced the most advanced is 200 nanometers
- Xianteng Optoelectronics Technology Co., Ltd. has mass-produced 800nm
- Wuxi Shadow Speed Semiconductor Technology Co., Ltd. 200nm
Supplement: ASML has reservations when selling lithography machines to Chinese fabs, that is, it is forbidden to use the lithography machines sold by ASML to domestic CPUs as OEMs for domestic independent CPUs—as long as SMIC, Huali Micro and other wafers Although the ASML lithography machine purchased by the factory does not affect the foundry of ARM chips, it is impossible to do foundry and commercial mass production of independent CPUs such as Loongson and Shenwei. Even for small batch production in the field of scientific research and national defense, there are certain risks. The Godson 3A1500, which is specially designed for military use and the Godson 3A2000 used in the party, government and military market, can only be produced in small batches. In the propaganda, it can only be vaguely stated that it is domestic streaming… This has greatly affected the development of independent technology and China’s integrated circuit industry. See Wassenaar Protocol.
LED packaging factory
At present, there are more than 1,000 LED packaging companies in China, 2/3 of which are located in the Pearl River Delta region. There are more than 1,800 LED industry companies in Shenzhen, which is the most concentrated area of the national LED industry. The quality, output and export volume of LED packaging, display and LED Corn Bulbs Lights and other led products in Shenzhen rank among the top in the country. In terms of industrial links, a relatively complete industrial chain of “equipment-material-chip-package-application” has been formed, and it is one of the largest LED packaging bases and application product development bases in China.
Mainland China: Mulinsen, Hongli Optoelectronics, Nationstar Optoelectronics, Tiandian Optoelectronics, Ruifeng Optoelectronics, Ruifeng Optoelectronics, Changfang Lighting, Zhaochi Shares, Yuanlei Technology, Jinke Electronics, Wanrun Technology, etc.;
Overseas: LG Innotek, Cree, etc.;
Taiwan: Yiguang, Lextar, Dongbei, LITE-ON, Edison, Hongqi, Baihong, Yiquan, Huaxing, Lizhou, etc.
Gallium Arsenide Suppliers
Raw materials for LED light-emitting materials and devices, including substrate materials gallium arsenide single crystal, aluminum nitride single crystal, etc. Most of them are III-V compound semiconductor single crystals, and the production process is relatively mature. Other materials include metal high-purity gallium. The purity of raw materials is generally above 6N.
At present, gallium arsenide single chips are mainly controlled by Japanese and American manufacturers, including Japan’s Sumitomo, Freiberger, Furukawa, Hitachi Cable and America’s Tongmei ( AXT ), Anadigics, Conexant and others.
Taiwan: Gaoping Epitaxy Technology, Jingmaoda Semiconductor, YuanAs Optoelectronics, Shengguang Optoelectronics, Wenmao Semiconductor, Giant Gallium Technology, etc.;
Mainland China: Gallium arsenide materials are dominated by the low-end market represented by low-resistance gallium arsenide chips for LEDs. The main suppliers are: Beijing Tongmei, Zhongke Jingdian, Tianjin Jingming Electronic Materials Co., Ltd. (China Power Group 46 Research Institute), Beijing Zhongke Gaying Semiconductor, Beijing Guorui, Shandong Far East, Daqing Jiachang, Xinxiang Shenzhou (formerly state-owned 542 factory), etc.
LED testing equipment
LED testing instruments mainly include ray twin crystal diffractometers, fluorescence spectrometers, Rutherford backscattering channel spectrometers and other chips for epitaxy materials, LED photoelectric characteristic testers and spectrum analyzers for device testing instruments. The main test parameters are forward and reverse voltage, current characteristics, normal phase LED Grow Lights intensity, light intensity distribution, luminous flux, peak wavelength, dominant wavelength, color coordinates, and color rendering index.
Spectrum analyzer suppliers in mainland China: Guangzhou Jingyi Optoelectronics, Hangzhou Hongpu Optoelectronics, Hangzhou Chuanghui Instruments, etc.
LED production equipment manufacturer
LED production equipment, including MOVVD equipment, liquid-phase external plating furnace, photolithography machine, dicing machine, automatic crystal bonding machine, gold wire ball welding machine, silicon-aluminum wire ultrasonic pressure welding machine, glue filling machine, vacuum oven, Chip counter, chip detector, film pouring machine, light and color point automatic sorting machine, etc.
MOVVD equipment suppliers:
Abroad: American Veeco, German Axitron, Nippon Sanso, Nissin Electric, etc.;
Domestic: North Microelectronics, Qingdao Jason Electric, Shanghai Lanbao Optoelectronics, Beijing Esprit Semiconductor, Guangdong Zhaoxin Semiconductor, Jiangsu Huasheng Tianlong Optoelectronics, etc.
Dicing-packaging FOL suppliers: Japan Disco, Japan Tokyo Precision, CETC 45, Han’s Laser, etc.
Suppliers of chip testing machines: Adcantest of Japan, Teradyne of the United States, Xcerra of the United States, Changchuan Technology of China, etc.
Suppliers of chip sorting machines: Kexiu of the United States, Adcantest of Japan, Epson of Japan, Changchuan Technology of China, 45th Institute of CETC, etc.
Major brands of LED lighting
Opple Lighting OPPLE, NVC NVC, Longsheng Lighting, Philips Lighting, Foshan Lighting FSL, Panasonic, Osram, Wonder Lighting,TCL Lighting, Midea Lighting, Huayi Lighting, Sanxiong Aurora Pak, Sunshine Lighting YANKON, Delixi DELIXI, Mulinsen MLS, Yapai, CHINT, KINGSUN, SANSI, CHANGFANG, SFT, Tongfang, GUANYA, Jiuliang DP, YAGE, GE Lighting, LONON, EBOY, Skyworth Skyworth, Lianchuang Optoelectronics Lianonovation, Handson, CNLIGHT and so on.
The Link From:LED Lighting Industry Chain